Obesity Risk Factors and Consequences

Obesity Risk Factors and Consequences

Obesity

Obesity is a major public health concern the globe. Obesity is majorly concerned with health behaviors and health outcomes, such as diabetes, hypertension and cancer. Worldwide obesity and overweight has nearly tripled since 1975.  In 2016, more than1.9 billion adults (18 plus) were overweight, of these over 650 million were obese similarly 41 million children under the age of 5 were overweight or obese.

According to WHO, Overweight and obesity can be defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health.. Body mass index (BMI) is a simple index for weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify overweight and obesity in adults. It is defined as a person’s weight in kg divided by the square of his/her height in meters (kg/m2).

Obesity Risk Factors and Consequences

International Classification of adult underweight, overweight and obesity according to BMI

Classification BMI(kg/m2)
Principal cut-off points Additional cut-off points
Underweight <18.50 <18.50
     Severe thinness <16.00 <16.00
     Moderate thinness 16.00 – 16.99 16.00 – 16.99
     Mild thinness 17.00 – 18.49 17.00 – 18.49
Normal range 18.50 – 24.99 18.50 – 22.99
23.00 – 24.99
Overweight ≥25.00 ≥25.00
     Pre-obese 25.00 – 29.99 25.00 – 27.49
27.50 – 29.99
     Obese ≥30.00 ≥30.00
          Obese class I 30.00 – 34.99 30.00 – 32.49
32.50 – 34.99
          Obese class II 35.00 – 39.99 35.00 – 37.49
37.50 – 39.99
          Obese class III ≥40.00 ≥40.00

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Obesity threats public health more than communicable diseases in the present world. Overweight and obesity affect every age group around the world. Obese individuals are likely to have medical and health problems. There is debate over how an individual person becomes obese he/she eats more calories than he/she expends. Sedentary lifestyles, calorie-dense foods, large portion sizes, and excessive television viewing are among the identified contributors.

Risk Factors of obesity

  • Genetics
  • Family lifestyle
  • Age
  • Unhealthy diet
  • Certain medications
  • Social and economic issues
  • Inactivity

Consequences of Obesity

Most of people who are obese are at increased risk for many serious and health conditions. Some of conditions are given below:

  • High blood pressure
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Stroke
  • Sleep apnea and breathing problems
  • Low quality of life
  • Mental illness

 

 

 

References

1. Arroyo-Johnson C, Mincey KD. Obesity epidemiology trends by race/ethnicity, gender, and education: National Health Interview Survey, 1997–2012. Gastroenterology clinics of North America. 2016;45(4):571-579. doi:10.1016/j.gtc.2016.07.012.

2. WHO

3. https://www.intechopen.com /books/adiposity-epidemiology-and-          treatmentmodalities/obesity-as-a-growing-public-health-problem

4. Bassett MT, Perl S. Obesity: The Public Health Challenge of Our Time. American Journal of Public Health. 2004;94(9):1477

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